Conflicts of interest

Journal Business Ethics and Leadership follows the COPE principles.

Conflict of interests’ policy describes what team members should do in case of their individual interests and those of the organization conflict. Editors, authors, and peer reviewers should disclose interests that might appear to present or review work objectively. These could be pertinent financial interests as well as personal, political, or religious ones. Strict policies that prevent authors with conflicts of interest from publishing may incentivize authors to conceal relevant interests, which could be detrimental.

Those involved in decisions concerning publication, such as Editorial Board members, reviewers, and journal staff should disclose their interests. Journal ought to consider the possibility of posting these on the website, updating the information as necessary, and revealing how conflicts of interest were managed for specific papers. A conflict-of-interest statement should be included in the article if an author, reviewer, Editor, Managing editor, or a member of the Editorial Board confirms that there are conflicts of interest or information leaks prior to the publication of the article.


Authors are required to exclude any potential conflicts of interest before submitting their papers to the journal. Each disclosure statement should be collected into a separate PDF file and submitted properly. If conflicts of interest are found after publication, authors must also submit corrections. All co-authors are expected to provide the corresponding author with any pertinent information. Each author confirms that they are not connected to or a part of any group or organization that has a financial or non-financial interest in the topics or materials covered in the submitted manuscript. There are no proprietary or financial interests maintained by the authors in any of the subjects covered in the article.

Editorial Board members, Journal staff

Editors must specify what information must be published, including the time frame for which these statements must apply (for example, 3 years). Editors should require authors to list any relevant funding they have received, along with its purpose (such as speaker’s fees or travel grants), as well as any relevant stocks, bonds, or other ownership interests they may have.

When appropriate, editors should disclose any conflicts of interest involving authors or at least note their absence. Editors should choose more disclosure if there is any doubt.

Editors should publish a statement to the effect that there are no conflicts of interest if authors claim there aren’t.

Editors must control the conflicts of interest of peer reviewers. A request for the reviewer to disclose any potential conflicts of interest and a request for the peer reviewer to disqualify or recuse themselves when these are pertinent should be included with an offer to review a paper.

Editors, members of Editorial Board, and other editorial staff members should abstain from discussions, delegate decision-making authority, or advise authors to submit their work to another journal when their personal interests could be seen as preventing them from making an objective editorial judgment regarding a paper.

The editor or a member of the Editorial Board cannot take part in the peer review process or make decisions regarding his or her own work.

Members of the editorial board should maintain the privacy of the author and reviewers and refrain from using any of the manuscript’s materials or ideas prior to its publication.

If there is a conflict of interest prior to the article’s publication, whether it has been acknowledged by an author, a reviewer, Editorial Board members, editors, the Managing Editor, or the journal’s staff, or if there has been a leak of information, a conflict of interest statement should be published in the piece. In addition, the editor may request and publish related documents so that the reader has all the facts and can decide for himself the potential conflicts of interest on the published results.


A reviewer must follow the COPE principles of the peer review process in the journal. Reviewers must contact the Managing editor in case of a conflict of interest. Reviewer and author must not be related personally (i.e., relatives or close friends).

Direct or indirect financial interests in the manuscript under review are not permitted for reviewers. Reviewer ought to have mentioned his potential conflict of interest. The reviewer should decline to review the manuscript if there are any situations, facts, or behaviors that could compromise the transparency of the article assessment. Reviewers must notify managing editors of any potential conflicts of interest and speak with them.

  • Financial interests that need to be disclosed:

    Any funding sources, whether direct (employment, grants, patents, stock ownership, sponsorships, etc.) or indirect (consulting fees, equipment supplies, etc.), where the funding organization stands to benefit or lose from the publication of the article or where the work submitted could be inferred to have been influenced.

  • Personal relationships/academic competitions that need to be disclosed:

    Any unpaid positions that the authors have that might have an impact on how their work is published. These would include memberships in professional organizations and unpaid advisory affiliations.

    It is also advisable to mention any personal relationships or beliefs that can be construed as incompatible. In this case, the finance for the project can come from a relative who works for a company. A manuscript by an author whose relationship with one of the editors would give the impression of bias (for example, in terms of close friendship or conflict/rivalry) or by a family member of one of the editors will be handled by a different editor. Additionally, editors will not be held accountable for papers submitted by associates (former students, fellows, mentors, and collaborators) with whom they have collaborated within the last five years. The other editor will choose the referees and make all final decisions on the paper. The editors will confer with one another if they are unsure.

  • Political or religious beliefs:

    If a publication affirms or challenges a person’s political or religious beliefs, that person may have a conflict of interest due to their strong devotion to that political view (e.g., political position, agenda, or party).

  • Institutional affiliations:

    A participant in the publication process has a conflict of interest if they are directly connected to a company or organization that seems to have an interest in the publication.

Declaration and Disclosure

Journal editors are required to be particularly sensitive to the issue of actual or apparent conflicts of interest and to take extra precautions to prevent them. In case of any conflict of interests each disclosure statement should be collected into a separate PDF file and submitted properly. All authors should identify any personal circumstances or interests that may influence the presentation or interpretation of research findings. The sponsor’s role in the study development; in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of data; or in the decision on the results publication must be declared. If there is no conflict of interest authors should write “Authors declare no conflict of interest” in the submitted manuscript.