Mufutau Akanmu Popoola, PhD, Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria
Mande Samaila, PhD, Professor, Dean of the School of postgraduate studies, National Open University of Nigeria
Lawal Kamaldeen A. A., PhD, Head of the Department of Entrepreneurial Studies, National Open University of Nigeria
This study examined the influence of leadership style and ethical climate of attitude to work of the police officers in Nigeria. Two hypotheses were tested in line with the objectives and research questions of the study. The ex-post facto method, which involved the use of secondary data from the internet, journals, and articles, was employed. For this research work, the quantitative research design was used. The population of the study consists of Officers of The Nigeria Police Force Osun State Headquarter in Nigeria. However, a sample size for this study was determined using Yamane formula. The sample size consists of one hundred and sixty-five (165) Officers of the Nigeria Police Force. The instrument used for this research work is the questionnaire. The instrument passes the test of validity. The data were analyzed using manual and electronic-based methods through the data preparation grid and statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). The utilization of structured grids allows specific responses to be located with relative ease and facilitate the identification of emerging patterns. The linear regression analysis method and ANOVA were employed to test the hypothesis. Other methods of data analysis, which were also used in this study, include parametric and non-parametric measurement such as trend analysis. The research finds out that leadership style and ethical climate have a significant effect on police officers’ attitude to work and also Police officers who are affected by unfavorable ethical climate may result to lackadaisical attitude during official assignments which affect their productivity at work. It was also revealed that Self-Esteem adopted by the Nigeria Police force had an effect on Ethical Behavior of Police officers in Nigeria. The Study recommends that government should provide modern equipment to change outdated one and inculcate the habit of frequent use of technology in the discovery of the crime, curbing the crime as well and also specialized training should be conducted on regular basis to the officers of the force.
Keywords: leadership, style, ethical behavior, attitude to work, ethical climate.
JEL Classification: M1, L29.
Cite as: Popoola, M.A., Samaila, M., Lawal Kamaldeen, A.A. (2019). Influence of Leadership Style and Ethical Climate of Attitude to Work of Police Officers: Evidence from Osun State Police Headquarter, Nigeria. Business Ethics and Leadership, 3(2), 83-92. http://doi.org/10.21272/bel.3(2).83-92.2019.
- Adams, J. S., Tashchian, A. and Shore, T. H. (2001). Codes of ethics as signals for ethical behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 29, 199-211.
- Adebayo, C. (2005). Trouble with Nigeria. Heinemann. London. Book of reading, 1(1).
- Alpert, G., Rojek, J. and Porter, L. E. (2012). Measuring the impact of organizational culture and climate on police officers’ decisions and behavior. CEPS Working Paper 1. Brisbane: ARC Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security. Available at: http://www.ceps.edu.au/CMS/Uploads/file/GAlpert_JRojek_LPorter_issue1.pdf.
- Avolio, B. J. (1999). Full leadership development: Building the vital forces in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Aryee, Samuel, Pawan, S. Budhwar and Zhen, Xion Chen (2002). Trust as a mediator of the relationship between organizational justice and work outcome. Test of Social Exchange Model. Jornal of Organoisational Behavior, 23(3), 267-285.
- Afolabi, O.A., Omole, E.O. (2011). Personality type and workforce diversity as predictors of an ethical behavior and job satisfaction among Nigerian policemen. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 3(5), 381-388.
- Asika, N. A. (1991). Research Methodology in the Behavioral Sciences Longman. Ikeja. Longman publisher Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 39-40.
- Babin, Bary J., Donald, P. Robin (2000) and James, S. Boles (2000). Representing the perceived ethical work climate among marketing employees. Journal of Academy of Marketing Sciences, 28(3), 345-358.
- Brasher et al. (2003). and Flaherty and Pappas (2002). Sales researchers and increases job satisfaction. Journal of Applied psychology, 8(2), 15-25.
- Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ; Prentice–Hall.
- Can Nigeria’s police be reformed? BBC News. 2009-07-30. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
- Creswell, J. W. (2009). Educational research planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd Ed) Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Education.
- Flaherty and Pappas (2002). Career stage and generational differences in Psychological. Journal of Applied psychology, 8(2), 26-35.
- Howitt, D. (2002). Forensic and criminal psychology. London: Prentice Hall. Book of reading, 1st edition. ISBN 978-0-13-016985-3.
- Huang, X., Iun, J., Liu, A. and Gong, Y. (2010). Does participative leadership enhance work performance by inducing empowerment or trust? The differential effects on managerial and non-managerial subordinates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(1), 122-143.
- Huberts, L. L., Kaptein, M. M. and Lasthuizen, K. K. (2007). A study of the impact of three leadership styles on integrity violations committed by police officers. Policing. An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 30(4), 587-607.
- Kowo, S.A., Kadiri, I. B. & Sabitu, O.W. (2018). Effect of participative Leadership style on employees’ productivity. International Journal of Economic Behavior, 8(1), 47-60.
- Kowo, S.A. & Akinbola, O.A. (2018). Strategic Leadership and Sustainability Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises. Acta Economica ET Turistica. De Gruyter Sciendo, Libertas International University, Republic of Croatia, 2, 121-214. DOI: 10.1515/aet-2018-0010.
- Macenzie, Pod Sakoff and Rich (2001). Leadership styles and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Global Business and Economics, 2(1), 111-118.
- Mowday, Steers and Porter (1976). The Measurement of Organizational Commitment. Journal of Global Business and Economics, 2(1), 119-127.
- Osuji, C. (2013). Nigeria Police: most misunderstood, under-rated and vilified- why? Daily Independence Newspaper. Wednesday, May; 2013.
- Popoola, M. A. (2018). Influence of leadership style and ethical climate of attitude to work of police officers in Nigeria. Unpublished PhD seminar in Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, School of Business and Governance, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria.
- Ngodo, O.E. (2008). Procedural justice and trust: The link in the transformation leadership organization outcome relationship. Into. J. lead Studies, 4(1), 82-100.
- Ross, Jr. W. T. and Robertson, D. C. (2000). Lying: The impact of decision context. Business Ethics Quarterly, 10, 409-440.
- Rubin, R. S., Bommer, W. H., Bachrach, D. G. (2010). Operant leadership and employee citizenship: A question of trust? The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 400-408.
- Schneider, J. A. (2009). In pursuit of police professionalism: The development and assessment of a conceptual model of professionalism in law enforcement. Unpublished PhD Thesis: University of Pittsburgh.
- Smith, G. (2010). Every complaint matters: Human rights commissioner’s opinion concerning independent and effective determination of complaints. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 38(2), 59-74.
- Stone, C. and Ward, H. (2000). Democratic policing: A framework for action. Policing and Society, 10(1), 11-45.
- Walumbwa, F. O., Wang, P., Wang, H., Schaubroeck, J. and Avolio, B. J. (2010). Psychological processes linking authentic leadership to follower behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 901-914.
- Wolfe, S. E. and Piquero, A. (2011). Organizational justice and police misconduct. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38, 332-353.
- Wood, J. R. T. (1997). Final Report of the Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service. Sydney: Government Printer.