Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
Alexandre Guimaraes Vasconcellos,
Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
Many countries have adopted measures to protect the results of academic research through the use of patents and to promote the transfer of knowledge from the public to the private sector. In parallel, studies have focused on discussing the importance of networks of university researchers for the transfer of university specialization in economically viable applications. This paper uses the dynamics of academic patent ownership to analyze the collaborative networks university-industry in Brazil. The database was built from the patents published by PCT with Brazilian priority for the period 2001-2015. Academic patents can be described as “university academic patents” under the ownership of the university; and “academic non-university patents” are those that have at least one professor bonded to the University and listed as an inventor in the patent application. It was verified that the collaboration of Brazilian universities with the productive sector is still small, only 11,8%. However, the lack of university-industry interactions is more significant when the patent is under the ownership of the university compared to “academic non-university patents”. 68.2% of university patents do not collaborate with other institutions. If we add to the public research organizations, the percentage is 73.5%. Of the total non-university patents, 49.7% owned to companies, followed by 30.6% of patents attributed to individuals. Ownership of the patent may be an indicator of the commercial interest of the invention, but the evidence in this paper indicates that higher university ownership is not correlated with higher quality academic patents. Our discussion reinforces that recent innovation policies in Brazil have encouraged the hype of university patenting. Another factor is also in the ability of companies to absorb knowledge. The results achieved are pioneering in what regards Brazil. It would be interesting to analyze the potential and economic value of the licensing of the university and non-university academic patents.
Keywords: academic patent, university, industry, collaboration, Brazil.
JEL Classification: O34.
Cite as: Silva, K., & Vasconcellos, A. G. (2018). Academic inventors and patent rights: structure of collaboration in academic patents and university patents in Brazil. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 3, 21-33. https://doi.org/10.21272/mmi.2018.3-02
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
- Amadei, J. R. P., &Torkomian, A. L. V. (2009). As patentes nas universidades: análise dos depósitos das universidades públicas paulistas. Ciência da Informação, 38(2), 9–18.
- Arbix, G. andConsoni, F. (2011), “Inovar para transformar a universidade brasileira”, Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, Vol. 26(77), 205-224.
- Bekkers, R., & Bodas Freitas, I. M. (2008). Analysing knowledge transfer channels between universities and industry: To what degree do sectors also matter? Research Policy, 37(10), 1837–1853.
- Bellini, E., Piroli, G., &Pennacchio, L. (2018). Collaborative know-how and trust in university–industry collaborations: empirical evidence from ICT firms. The Journal of Technology Transfer.
- Breschi, S., Lissoni, F., Montobbio, F. (2008). University patenting and scientific productivity: a quantitative study of Italian academic inventors. European Management Review 5, 91–109.
- Chan, L., &Daim, T. (2012). Exploring the impact of technology foresight studies on innovation: Case of BRIC countries. Futures, 44(6), 618–630.
- Dagnino, R. (2007). Os modelos cognitivos das políticas de interação universidade- empresa. Convergência – Revista de CienciasSociales 14, 95–110.
- Damsgaard, E., &Thursby, M. C. (2013). University entrepreneurship and professor privilege. Industrial and Corporate Change, 22(1), 183–218.
- Etzkowitz, H. (2012). An Innovation Strategy to End the Second Great Depression. European Planning Studies 20, 1439–1453.
- Etzkowitz, H., de Mello, J.M.C., Almeida, M. (2005). Towards “meta-innovation” in Brazil: The evolution of the incubator and the emergence of a triple helix. Research Policy 34, 411–424.
- Griliches, Z. (1990), “Patent statistics as economic indicators: a survey”, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 28(4), 1661–1707.
- Koeller, P. (2009). Política Nacional de Inovação no Brasil Releitura das estratégias do período 1995-2006 (UnpublishedDoctoratedissertation). Universidade Federal do Rio de janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
- Lissoni, F. (2012). Academic patenting in Europe: An overview of recent research and new perspectives. World Patent Information, 34(3), 197–205.
- Lissoni, F., Llerena, P., McKelvey, M., &Sanditov, B. (2008). Academic patenting in Europe: new evidence from the KEINS database. Research Evaluation, 17(2), 87–102.
- Lissoni, F., Lotz, P., Schovsbo, J., &Treccani, A. (2009). Academic patenting and the professor’s privilege: evidence on Denmark from the KEINS database. Science andPublicPolicy, 36(8), 595–607.
- MCTI (2013). A Gestão da Propriedade Intelectual pelas Instituições de Fomento à Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação. Brasília, 2013.
- Mowery, D.C., Nelson, R.R., Sampat, B.N., Ziedonis, A.A. (2001). The growth of patenting and licensing by US universities: an assessment of the effects of the Bayh–Dole act of 1980. Research Policy 30, 99–119.
- OECD, 2013. Multilingual Summaries. OECD Science, Technology and Industry. Scoreboard 2013.
- Oliveira, L.G.; Nunes, J. S. (2013) Patentes universitárias no Brasil: a proteção do conhecimento gerado nas universidades no período de 1990 e 2010. In: Proceedings do XV Congresso Latino-Iberoamericano de Gestão de Tecnologia, Portugal: Porto.
- Perkmann, M., Tartari, V., McKelvey, M., Autio, E., Broström, A., D’Este, P., Fini, R., Geuna, A., Grimaldi, R., Hughes, A., Krabel, S., Kitson, M., Llerena, P., Lissoni, F., Salter, A., Sobrero, M. (2013). Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of the literature on university–industry relations. ResearchPolicy 42, 423–442.
- Póvoa, L. M. C. (2008). Patentes de universidades e institutos públicos de pesquisa ea transferência de tecnologia para empresas no Brasil. (UnpublishedDoctoraldissertation) UFMG/Cedeplar, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
- Querido, A.L. de S., Salgueiro Lage, C.L., Guimarães Vasconcellos, A. (2011). What is the Destiny of Patents of Brazilian Universities? Journal of technology management & innovation 6 (1), 46–57.
- Silva, K. Patentes Académicas no Brasil: Um Novo Panorama de Contribuição das Universidades na via PCT. (2014), 70f. (Unpublished Master dissertation) Instituto de Economia e Gestão, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
- Silva, K., Godinho, M. M., Tonholo, J., Uchoa, S. B. B., & Vasconcellos, A.G. (2014). Patentes Acadêmicas X Patentes Universitárias: Uma Avaliação do Inventor Acadêmico nas Patentes Depositadas Pela Via PCT 2002-2012. Cadernos de Prospecção, 7(3), 335.
- Stal, E., &Fujino, A. (2016). The evolution of universities’ relations with the business sector in Brazil: What national publications between 1980 and 2012 reveal. Revista de Administração, 51(1), 072–086.
- Sterzi, V. (2013). Patent quality and ownership: An analysis of UK faculty patenting. Research Policy, 42(2), 564–576.
- Thursby, J., Fuller, A.W. and Thursby, M. (2009), “US faculty patenting: Inside and outside the university”, Research Policy, Vol. 38(1), 14-25.
- Velho, L. (2007). O papel da formação de pesquisadores no sistema de inovação. Cienc. Cult. 59, 23–28.