Gayane Tovmasyan, PhD in Economics, Senior Researcher at ”AMBERD” Research Center of the Armenian State University of Economics, Professor at the Public Administration Academy of the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Armenia
This paper summarizes the arguments and counterarguments within the scientific discussion on the issues of gastronomy and gastronomic tourism. Many people travel just for gastronomic purposes. Food is the essential need for human being, and it may become the main motivating factor for deciding to travel. Gastronomy and its role in the promotion of tourism therefore need to be studied in greater detail. The main purpose of the article is a comprehensive analysis of the role of gastronomy in the development of tourism industry in the country. The methodological tool for the research was a survey, some hypotheses were derived, which were analyzed via Crosstabulations with Pearson Chi-square testing. The investigation of the topic and the results of the analysis state that gastronomy is the part of culture and traditions of a country and the art and culture of cooking. The research empirically confirms and theoretically proves that many people prefer local cuisine of the destination despite high prices and they evaluate the importance of good cuisine of the destination very high. Also the overall satisfaction with the journey is influenced also by the local cuisine of the destination. The main conclusion is that gastronomy may promote tourism and countries which have gastronomic heritage, should evaluate it and include it in touristic offers by making a gastronomic brand of the region or country. Countries should have a gastronomic tourism development plan. Gastronomic tourism should contribute to accomplishing of sustainable development goals. It may be a driver force for advancing the economy, creating new jobs, increasing the income of population who works in that sphere, etc. In order to meet the needs of tourists, countries should carry out research to understand the consumer motivations and behavior, and based on it to create gastronomic tourism product. Besides, educational organizations should prepare high qualified professionals for the sphere, as the staff competence has a great impact on service level, which in its turn influences customer satisfaction. The results of the research can be useful for the state organs, private sector, also for researchers of tourism sphere.
Keywords: gastronomy, culinary, tourism, culture, tradition, destination.
JEL Classification: Z3, L83, L66.
Cite as: Tovmasyan, G. (2019). Exploring The Role Of Gastronomy In Tourism. SocioEconomic Challenges, 3(3), 30-39. http://doi.org/10.21272/sec.3(3).30-39.2019.
- Long, L. M. (Ed.). (2004). Culinary tourism. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
- Kivela, J. & Crotts, J. C. (2006). Tourism and Gastronomy: Gastronomy’s Influence on How Tourists Experience a Destination. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 30(3), 354-377.
- Montanari, A.; Staniscia, B. (2009). Culinary Tourism as a Tool for Regional Re-Equilibrium. European Planning Studies, 17(10), 1463-1483.
- Horng, J. S. & Tsai, C.T.(S) (2010). Government Websites for Promoting East Asian Culinary Tourism: A Cross-National Analysis. Tourism Management, 31, 74-85.
- Sánchez-Cañizares, S.M. & López-Guzmán, T. (2012). Gastronomy as a Tourism Resource: Profile of the Culinary Tourist. Current Issues in Tourism, 15 (3), 229-245.
- McKercher, B.; Okumuş, F.; Okumuş, B. (2008). Food Tourism as a Viable Market Segment: It’s All How You Cook the Numbers!. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 25(2), 137-148.
- Hall, M.C., Sharples, L., Mitchell, R., Macionis, N., Cambourne, B. (2003). Food tourism around the world: development, management and markets, Butterworth-Heinemann: Elsevier.
- Hall, M., Mitchell, R., (2005). Gastronomic tourism: comparing food and wine tourism experiences, Niche Tourism, Contemporary Issues, Trendsand Cases, ss. 89-100.
- Hall, C.M. & Sharples, L. (2003). The consumption of experiences or the experiences of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste. C. Michael Hall, Liz Sharples, Richard Mitchell, Niki Macionis and Brock Cambourne (Ed.) Food Tourism: Around the World: Development, Management and Markets. Chapter 1, p.1-24, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
- Shenoy, S.S. (2005). Food Tourism And The Culinary Tourist. A Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of Clemson University, (Doctoral dissertation).
- Tikkanen, I. (2007). Maslow’s hierarchy and food tourism in Finland. British Food Journal, 721 – 734.
- Henderson, Joan C.(2009). Food tourism reviewed. British Food Journal, 111(4), 317-326.
- Alonso, A. D. (2010). Olives, hospitality and tourism: a Western Australia perspective. British Food Journal, 55 – 68.
- Wolf, E. (2002). Culinary tourism: A tasty economic proposition. Portland, Oregon: International Culinary Tourism Association.
- Bessiere, J. (1998). Local development and heritage: Traditional food and cuisine as tourist attractions in rural areas. Sociologia Ruralis, 38(1), 21-43.
- Boyne, S., Williams, F., & Hall, D. R. (2002). On the trail of regional success: Tourism food production and the Isle of Arran Taste Trail. In G. Richards & A. M. Hjalager (Eds.), Tourism and Gastronomy (pp. 91-114). London: Routledge.
- Henderson, J.C. (2009) Food tourism reviewed. British Food Journal, 111, 317–326.
- Lin Yi-Chin , Pearson Thomas E. , Cai Liping A. (2011). Food as a form of Destination Identity: A Tourism Destination Brand Perspective. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(30-48), https://doi.org/10.1057/thr.2010.22.
- Stone J.Matthew , Soulard Joelle , Migacz Steven , Wolf Erik (2017), Elements of Memorable Food, Drink, and Culinary Tourism Experiences. Journal of Travel, 57(8), 1121-1132. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287517729758
- Levitt Jamie A, Meng Fang , Zhang Pei , Di Pietro Robin B. (2017). Examining factors influencing food tourist intentions to consume local cuisine. Tourism and Hospitality research, https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358417742687
- Kivela, J. Jakša, Crotts C. John (2009). Understanding Travelers’ Experiences of Gastronomy Through Etymology and Narration. Journal of Hospitality and tourism research, 33(2), 161-192.
- OECD (2012). Food and the Tourism Experience: The OECD-Korea Workshop, OECD Studies on Tourism, OECD Publishing. pp. 10-11.
- World Tourism Organization (2017). Affiliate Members Report, Volume sixteen – Second Global Report on Gastronomy Tourism, UNWTO, Madrid, pp. 17-19.
- UNWTO (2019). 5th UNWTO World Forum on Gastronomy Tourism, URL: http://www2.unwto.org/event/5th-unwto-world-forum-gastronomy-tourism-0.
- UNWTO (2018). 4th UNWTO World Forum on Gastronomy Tourism, Closing remarks, URL:http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/closing_remarks_from_the_4th_world_forum_on_gastronomy_tourism.pdf.